|Course Title||Ideological Foundations of Pakistan|
|Last Date To Submit||November 2023|
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The foundation of Muslim rule in India was laid by Shabab-ud-Din Ghori towards the close of the 12th century A.D. However, long before that Muslims had started making attempts to enter India.
The first such attempt was made in the middle of the 7th century A.D. which, however, proved a failure in 711-713 A.D. the Arabs under Muhammad- bin-Qasim, nephew of the Governor of Basra attacked India and conquered Sindh and Multan.
However, the Arabs could not retain control over this region for long as the Arabs were unskilled in the art of Government, they left the administration of these areas completely in the hands of the natives. This occupation of Sindh by the Muslims came to an end with the death of Muhammad bin Qasim.
Ideological Foundations of Pakistan (9352/8665) BS Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments
The next attempt to capture India made by the Turks of Ghazni. Subuktgin and his son Mahmud (995—1030) attacked Punjab which was then rule by the Shahi dynasty. Subuktgin defeated the Shahi ruler Jaipal and deprived him of his trans-Indus territory. The rest of the territories of Jaipal were wrested by his son Mahmud.
Mahmud in all conducted seventeen raids against northern India and carried away huge booty. Though these invasions of Mahmud were barren of any political results, yet they exposed the political and military weaknesses of India to the Muslim world.
The credit for laying a firm foundation of the Muslim rule in India goes to Shahab ud Din Ghori. Shahab-ud-Din Ghori seized the throne of Ghazni in 1173. After consolidating his position, he turned his attention toward the fertile plains of India.
During the next ten years, he conquered a number of areas like Multan, Uche, and Lahore. He even defeated the Rajput ruler, Prithviraj of Delhi at the battle of Tarain in 1192. After this he conquered Ajmer, Kanauj, and Banaras. Ideological Foundations of Pakistan (9352/8665) BS Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments.
After the death of Shahab-ud-Din Ghori, his Viceroy Kutub- ud-Din Aibak set up the Slave dynasty in India. Kutub-ud-Din ruled India for four years and greatly extended the conquests made by Mohammad Ghori with the assistance of Mohammad Bakhtiyar Khilji. He brought the whole of northern India under his control.
9352/8665 BS Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments
The other important rulers of the Slave Dynasty who consolidated and extended the Empire were Iltutmiah and Balban. Altutmish not only saved the dismemberment of the Muslim Empire by curbing various revolts by the Governors of Bengal and Bihar but also conquered Malwa and Sindh.
Likewise, Balban, as a Minister of Altutmish rushed the rebellions of Hindu kings and Muslim governors. He also successfully repulsed attacks of the Mongols. Later on as a king, Balban not only re-organized the administrative machinery but also raised strong protection against Mongol raids in the north-western frontiers.
BS Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments
After the Slave Dynasty, Jalal-ud-Din Khilji founded the new Khilji Dynasty. The most important ruler of this dynasty was Ala-ud Din Khilji. Under him, the kingdom of Delhi reached its zenith. He greatly extended his Empire both in the north as well as in the south. In fact, it was the first Muslim Empire that covered practically the whole of India.
However, this Empire did not survive for long and declined after his death. In fact, during the last years of his time, Ala-ud-Din Khilji saw this wieldy fabric tumbling. But it certainly goes to the credit of Ala-ud-Din Khilji that he subjugated the Rajput kingdoms of Mewar, Ranthambhor, Gujarat, etc., and also annexed kingdoms of Devgiri, Warangal, and Madura in the south.