Q. 1 Discuss different issues in child development. Child Development (1651) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments.
Children’s development of social skills is affected by the nature of their family and early educational experiences (NRC, 2002). Whether in a nuclear, blended, or extended family; a communal arrangement; or a single-parent family, the child learns social patterns and skills within this context. Children find love and security and form attachments with people who protect and care for them. In the family, children become socialized through interactions with parents, siblings, relatives, and neighbors; once in a school setting, they need new ways of acting, relating, and socializing. Child Development (1651) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments.
Children who have had a strong attachment to a nurturing figure and see themselves as separate from this nurturing figure are ready for a group situation. Children who have not fully developed strong attachments to another person may have a more difficult time adjusting to the complexity of the social system of the school.
Are children an active force in their own development?
The child development theories vary widely in scope and content. The psychoanalytic theory focuses on the emotional and motivational aspects of development. Learning theory is concerned generally with the effects of the environment on behavior and, more specifically, with how those who deal with children can control their behavior. Piaget’s theory focuses on the development of intellectual functioning: adaptive problem-solving, reasoning, and concept formation. Information processing theory is concerned primarily with children’s attention, memory, and problem-solving abilities. The ethological theory explores the effects of evolution on children’s adaptive behavior.
But the theories do not just differ in content, they take very different positions on certain fundamental issues about the nature of development. But is the child an active force in its own development? Is development continuous or discontinuous? Are there critical periods in development? Is development the product of nature or nurture? Child Development (1651) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments.
Child Development Assignments
Some theories portray children as essentially passive with respect to developmental change. In this view, children do not initiate behavior or spontaneously act upon the environment; they merely react to stimuli from the environment. Thus, some developmentalists see development as the accumulation of learned associations between environmental stimuli and responses (Skinner, 1953; Bijou & Baer, 1961; Bijou, 1989)
There is no simple resolution to the differences between the passive and active views. Both seem valid. Children do appear to actively affect some developmental changes, such as acquiring language and social skills. Other changes, such as physical growth and changes in certain infant reflexes, seem to occur with less, or perhaps no active participation of the child. Thus the complexity of development can be best explained by theories that encompass both passive and active involvement of the child in developmental change.
Is development continuous or discontinuous?
Many developmentalism believes that the accumulation of developmental change is not a matter of adding one new skill after another. Instead, they believe that developmental change causes “the rules of the system to change” (Green, 1989, p.17), or to reorganize. For example, when a thirteen-month-old suddenly discovers that he can let go of furniture and toddle across the living room, the rules for the system of movement in space change irreversibly. At a more advanced level of development, when a five-year-old child discovers that a few cookies can be called one, two, and three, her mental system for conceptualizing quantity is completely reorganized. She can now count cookies and tell whether her brother has more or fewer than she has.
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The controversy of continuity versus discontinuity is this: Some theorists say that children go through various developmental stages defined by reorganizing changes, while other theorists reject the notion of stages. A developmental stage refers to the time elapsing between any two sequential developmental changes that reorganize the system. But Sigmund Freud (1939) proposed that personality emerges in a sequence of five developmental stages organized around qualitatively different aspects of sexual functioning. So Jean Piaget (1983) proposed that cognitive development emerges in a series of four sequential stages organized around qualitatively distinct forms of thinking and problem-solving. Theorists who accept the concept of stages view development as discontinuous.
Child Development (1651) Spring & Autumn Solved Assignments
Other theorists such as social learning theorists (Bandura, 1989) and information-processing theorists (Bjorkland, 1987; Klahr, 1989) explain development without reference to the stage concept. But they view development as a gradual accumulation of minute changes and see no basis for arbitrarily dividing development into stages. So Developmentalists who reject the concept of stages view development as continuous. Child Development (1651) B.Ed Spring & Autumn 2023 Solved Assignments.
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Q. 2 But elaborate on the different physical characteristics of learners. Also, discuss the role of physical activities in developing body movement.
They talk about what to do, and the pros and cons of a situation. But they indicate emotion through the tone, pitch, and volume of their voices. They enjoy listening but cannot wait to get a chance to talk. They tend toward long and repetitive descriptions. So they like hearing themselves and others talk. They tend to remember names but forget faces and are easily distracted by sounds. They enjoy reading dialogue and plays and dislike lengthy narratives and descriptions. Auditory learners benefit from oral instruction, either from the teacher or from themselves. They prefer to hear or recite information and benefit from auditory repetition.
Like to talk
Talk to self
Lose concentration easily
Prefer spoken directions over written directions
Read with whispering lip movements
Cannot concentrate when noisy
Prefer lectures and discussion
Prefer verbal praise from teachers
Tools for Auditory Learners
Record lectures for repeated listening
Use rhymes to help memorize
Say study material (record and listen repeatedly for review)
Listen to recordings of study material while driving to work or school
Discuss the material
Sound out words
Say words in syllables
Talk through problems; paraphrase ideas about new concepts
Talk about illustrations and diagrams in texts
With new processes, talk about what to do, how to do it, and why it’s done that way